But the idea that we live in a " multiverse " made up of an infinite number of parallel universes has long been considered a scientific possibility — although it is still a matter of vigorous debate among physicists. The race is now on to find a way to test the theory, including searching the sky for signs of collisions with other universes. It is important to keep in mind that the multiverse view is not actually a theory, it is rather a consequence of our current understanding of theoretical physics. This distinction is crucial.
We have not waved our hands and said: "Let there be a multiverse".
Instead the idea that the universe is perhaps one of infinitely many is derived from current theories like quantum mechanics and string theory. The act of opening the box allows us to follow one of the possible future histories of our cat, including one in which it is both dead and alive. The reason this seems so impossible is simply because our human intuition is not familiar with it. But it is entirely possible according to the strange rules of quantum mechanics.follow url
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The reason that this can happen is that the space of possibilities in quantum mechanics is huge. Mathematically, a quantum mechanical state is a sum or superposition of all possible states. But how do we interpret this to make any practical sense at all? One popular way is to think of all these possibilities as book-keeping devices so that the only "objectively true" cat state is the one we observe. However, one can just as well choose to accept that all these possibilities are true, and that they exist in different universes of a multiverse.
String theory is one of our most, if not the most promising avenue to be able to unify quantum mechanics and gravity. This is notoriously hard because gravitational force is so difficult to describe on small scales like those of atoms and subatomic particles — which is the science of quantum mechanics.
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But string theory, which states that all fundamental particles are made up of one-dimensional strings, can describe all known forces of nature at once: gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. However, for string theory to work mathematically, it requires at least ten physical dimensions. Since we can only observe four dimensions: height, width, depth all spatial and time temporal , the extra dimensions of string theory must therefore be hidden somehow if it is to be correct.
To be able to use the theory to explain the physical phenomena we see, these extra dimensions have to be "compactified" by being curled up in such a way that they are too small to be seen. Perhaps for each point in our large four dimensions, there exists six extra indistinguishable directions? A problem, or some would say, a feature, of string theory is that there are many ways of doing this compactification — 10 possibilities is one number usually touted about.
Each of these compactifications will result in a universe with different physical laws — such as different masses of electrons and different constants of gravity. However there are also vigorous objections to the methodology of compactification, so the issue is not quite settled. But given this, the obvious question is: which of these landscape of possibilities do we live in? String theory itself does not provide a mechanism to predict that, which makes it useless as we can't test it. But fortunately, an idea from our study of early universe cosmology has turned this bug into a feature.
During the very early universe, before the Big Bang, the universe underwent a period of accelerated expansion called inflation. Inflation was invoked originally to explain why the current observational universe is almost uniform in temperature. However, the theory also predicted a spectrum of temperature fluctuations around this equilibrium which was later confirmed by several spacecraft such as Cosmic Background Explorer , Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the PLANCK spacecraft.
While the exact details of the theory are still being hotly debated, inflation is widely accepted by physicists. However, a consequence of this theory is that there must be other parts of the universe that are still accelerating. However, due to the quantum fluctuations of space-time, some parts of the universe never actually reach the end state of inflation. This means that the universe is, at least according to our current understanding, eternally inflating.
Some parts can therefore end up becoming other universes, which could become other universes etc. This mechanism generates a infinite number of universes. Particles had to decide how to behave when they hit a beam splitter. Later on, the experimenter could turn a second switch on or off.
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It turns out that what the observer decided at that point, determined what the particle did in the past. Regardless of the choice you, the observer, make, it is you who will experience the outcomes that will result. The linkages between these various histories and universes transcend our ordinary classical ideas of space and time. Think of the watts of energy as simply holo-projecting either this or that result onto a screen. According to Biocentrism, space and time are not the hard objects we think.
The same thing applies for time. Everything you see and experience right now is a whirl of information occurring in your mind. Space and time are simply the tools for putting everything together. Death does not exist in a timeless, spaceless world. That means nothing. People like us…know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.
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This was clear with the death of my sister Christine. After viewing her body at the hospital, I went out to speak with family members. For a few moments I felt like I was transcending the provincialism of time. I thought about the watts of energy, and about experiments that show a single particle can pass through two holes at the same time.
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I could not dismiss the conclusion: Christine was both alive and dead, outside of time. Christine had had a hard life. She had finally found a man that she loved very much.
Since no one else from our side of the family showed, Christine asked me to walk her down the aisle to give her away. Soon after the wedding, Christine and Ed were driving to the dream house they had just bought when their car hit a patch of black ice. She was thrown from the car and landed in a banking of snow.
I grieve that grief can teach me nothing, nor carry me one step into real nature. Christine had recently lost pounds, and Ed had bought her a surprise pair of diamond earrings. View article on Huffington Post 2, Comments. Are plants aware? Is death an illusion? These are some of the big questions tackled in Beyond Biocentrism , which serves up a new, biology-based theory of everything that is as delightful to read as it is fascinating.
It will shatter your ideas of life-time and space, and even death…you will never see reality the same again. Any short statement does not do justice to such a scholarly work… Most importantly, it makes you think. Donnall Thomas. From Wikipedia : The h-index measures both the productivity and impact of a scientist or scholar. A value of about 18 could mean a full professorship, 15—20 could mean a fellowship in the American Physical Society, and 45 or higher could mean membership in the United States National Academy of Sciences.
According to Hirsch who put forward the h-index , an h index of 20 is good, 40 is outstanding, and 60 is truly exceptional. Science , Science , Science , Science , Science , Science , Nature , Nature 61, Nature , Nature , Cell , Cell , Lancet , Lancet , Lancet , Professionally, Lanza works at the cutting edge of human discovery, but the majority of his domestic space looks like a museum from a bygone era. Stem cell researcher Robert Lanza hopes to save thousands of lives — and for a long time this caused him to fear for his own… At the time, a doctor was threatened at a nearby fertility clinic, and a pipe bomb exploded at a bio lab in Boston.
Jim Al-Khalili: Let's take parallel universes with a pinch of salt | Opinion | The Guardian
The blind shall see again; the paralyzed shall walk again; the hemophiliac shall not bleed anymore. That may sound like something out of the Bible, but Lanza is no faith healer.
He says that one of his patients can read a clock again and go shopping, while another can recognize colors again. Growing new body parts, reversing paralysis, stretching the limits of the human life span: This trailblazing stem cell researcher believes it is all within our reach. Space infinite or finite, but really really big.
Independent patches of space which light cannot move in between due to limits on its speed. Limits on location and speed uncertainty principle. So in an infinite universe there will be infinite number of duplications. Chapter 3: Infinity and eternity, the inflationary miltiverse. Early universe. Prediction of CMB. Story of finding CMB. Big Bang cannot explain the uniformity of CMB when taking account of limits on speed of light.
Repulsive gravity and negative pressure. Inflaton field. Brief rapid expansion followed by conversion of energy to particles. Many versions of inflationary framework. In many most versions, once inflation begins, it never ends - internal. Bubble universes. Although inflationary cosmology started as a speculation built on speculation, it has since gathered so much observational evidence. Higgs boson and field. Different values for constants in different babble universes due to environmental factors just as with identical twins who start with same DNA then the environment makes them different.
Anthropic reasoning possibility. Each bubble is spacially infinite from inside while finite from outside. Einstein to String Theory. Quantum Field theory as an introduction for string theory.